A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seedsThe parts of an avocado seed (a dicot), showing the seed coat, endosperm, and embryo.Immature Elm seeds.Diagram of the internal structure of a dicot seed and embryo. (a) seed coat, (b) endosperm, (c) cotyledon, (d) hypocotyl.
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A seed (in some plants, referred to as a kernel) is a small embryonic plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat, usually with some stored food. It is the product of the ripened ovule of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants which occurs after fertilization and some growth within the mother plant. The formation of the seed completes the process of reproduction in seed plants (started with the development of flowers and pollination), with the embryo developed from the zygote and the seed coat from the integuments of the ovule.

Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and spread of flowering plants, relative to more primitive plants like mosses, ferns and liverworts, which do not have seeds and use other means to propagate themselves. This can be seen by the success of seed plants (both gymnosperms and angiosperms) in dominating biological niches on land, from forests to grasslands both in hot and cold climates.

The term seed also has a general meaning that predates the above — anything that can be sown i.e. "seed" potatoes, "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds". In the case of sunflower and corn "seeds", what is sown is the seed enclosed in a shell or hull, and the potato is a tuber.

Seed structure

A typical seed includes three basic parts: (1) an embryo, (2) a supply of nutrients for the embryo, and (3) a seed coat.

The embryo is an immature plant from which a new plant will grow under proper conditions. The embryo has one cotyledon or seed leaf in monocotyledons, two cotyledons in almost all dicotyledons and two or more in gymnosperms. The radicle is the embryonic root. The plumule is the embryonic shoot. The embryonic stem above the point of attachment of the cotyledon(s) is the epicotyl. The embryonic stem below the point of attachment is the hypocotyl.

Within the seed, there usually is a store of nutrients for the seedling that will grow from the embryo. The form of the stored nutrition varies depending on the kind of plant. In angiosperms, the stored food begins as a tissue called the endosperm, which is derived from the parent plant via double fertilization. The usually triploid endosperm is rich in oil or starch and protein. In gymnosperms, such as conifers, the food storage tissue is part of the female gametophyte, a haploid tissue. In some species, the embryo is embedded in the endosperm or female gametophyte, which the seedling will use upon germination. In others, the endosperm is absorbed by the embryo as the latter grows within the developing seed, and the cotyledons of the embryo become filled with this stored food. At maturity, seeds of these species have no endosperm and are termed exalbuminous seeds. Some exalbuminous seeds are bean, pea, oak, walnut, squash, sunflower, and radish. Seeds with an endosperm at maturity are termed albuminous seeds. Most monocots (e.g. grasses and palms) and many dicots (e.g. brazil nut and castor bean) have albuminous seeds. All gymnosperm seeds are albuminous.

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Brussels Sprouts Catskill Vegetable Seeds (Brassica oleracea) 30+SeedsBrussels Sprouts Catskill Vegetable Seeds (Brassica oleracea) 30+Seeds $2.69 Soul Blossom - Tall Bearded Iris - Baisch 2017 - Diamond-Dusted Space-AgeSoul Blossom - Tall Bearded Iris - Baisch 2017 - Diamond-Dusted Space-Age $13.00
Dahlia Bundle (4 tubers) | Gorgeous Cut Flower Dahlias in Lovely ColorsDahlia Bundle (4 tubers) | Gorgeous Cut Flower Dahlias in Lovely Colors $20.00 Aubrieta Rock Cress Purple Aubrieta Hybrida Hendersonii - 500 Bulk SeedsAubrieta Rock Cress Purple Aubrieta Hybrida Hendersonii - 500 Bulk Seeds $11.04 Was: Previous Price $12.99
15 Pinto Quicksilver Geranium Pink & White Pelargonium Flower Seeds15 Pinto Quicksilver Geranium Pink & White Pelargonium Flower Seeds $5.99 Magic Roundabout Sunflower - 20 Seeds, 750 mgMagic Roundabout Sunflower - 20 Seeds, 750 mg $2.25
Organic Wheat- Hard Red - Flour, Food Storage, Wheatgrass, Juicing, Seed - GrassOrganic Wheat- Hard Red - Flour, Food Storage, Wheatgrass, Juicing, Seed - Grass $7.20 to $90.00 *Dixie Sunrise 2008 (Stamile,P.) daylily*Dixie Sunrise 2008 (Stamile,P.) daylily $27.99 Was: Previous Price $34.99
Fresh Carolina Reaper Hot Pepper Seeds (Hp22B) Worlds Hottest 18 seedsFresh Carolina Reaper Hot Pepper Seeds (Hp22B) Worlds Hottest 18 seeds $3.60 6 Canna Bulbs Large Beautiful Red Canna Bulbs Beautiful Extra Large Flowers Cana6 Canna Bulbs Large Beautiful Red Canna Bulbs Beautiful Extra Large Flowers Cana $9.79
The Dirty Gardener White Linen California Poppy Flowers - 280,000 Seeds/1 PoundThe Dirty Gardener White Linen California Poppy Flowers - 280,000 Seeds/1 Pound $39.49 Aubrieta Rock Cress Cascade Blue Aubrieta Hybrida Superbissima - 300 Bulk SeedsAubrieta Rock Cress Cascade Blue Aubrieta Hybrida Superbissima - 300 Bulk Seeds $14.99
Clarkia Godetia - Dwarf Scarlet Flower Seeds - Red Dwarf - Clarkia amoenaClarkia Godetia - Dwarf Scarlet Flower Seeds - Red Dwarf - Clarkia amoena $1.25 Purple Orchid Tree ( Bauhinia purpurea ) 30 Seeds Per Bag Usa SellerPurple Orchid Tree ( Bauhinia purpurea ) 30 Seeds Per Bag Usa Seller $5.99
Balansa Clover seed 2lbBalansa Clover seed 2lb $15.00 The Dirty Gardener Red/White/Arrowleaf Clover Mixture, 10 PoundsThe Dirty Gardener Red/White/Arrowleaf Clover Mixture, 10 Pounds $14.59
Bristlecone Pine (Pinus Aristata) Seeds "Oldest Living Tree in the World!" RareBristlecone Pine (Pinus Aristata) Seeds "Oldest Living Tree in the World!" Rare $4.49 Clarkia Godetia Dwarf White Flower Seeds excellent cut flowerClarkia Godetia Dwarf White Flower Seeds excellent cut flower $1.25
15 Geranium Horizon Blueberry Crush Flower Seeds15 Geranium Horizon Blueberry Crush Flower Seeds $5.99 Tall Bearded iris "Epicenter"(Ghio) Striking Black Cherry Plicata-Sienna BeardsTall Bearded iris "Epicenter"(Ghio) Striking Black Cherry Plicata-Sienna Beards $10.50
1/3-Pound Perennial 22-Variey Wild Flower Seeds Mixture1/3-Pound Perennial 22-Variey Wild Flower Seeds Mixture $29.25 Roma Tomato Seeds Organic Non-Gmo (Pkt of 100+)Roma Tomato Seeds Organic Non-Gmo (Pkt of 100+) $5.00
White Tomesol Tomato Seeds - Parchment-white, almost seedless fruit! Free Ship!White Tomesol Tomato Seeds - Parchment-white, almost seedless fruit! Free Ship! $2.69 to $9.99 5 Acacia Confusa Philippine Acacia5 Acacia Confusa Philippine Acacia $6.99
Organic Triticale Seeds- Sprouting Seed - Sprouts, Food Storage, Cereal, JuicingOrganic Triticale Seeds- Sprouting Seed - Sprouts, Food Storage, Cereal, Juicing $11.20 to $100.00 Canteloupe SeedsCanteloupe Seeds $3.99
Aubrieta Rock Cress Royal Mix Aubrieta Hybrida - 500 Bulk SeedsAubrieta Rock Cress Royal Mix Aubrieta Hybrida - 500 Bulk Seeds $11.04 Was: Previous Price $12.99 100 Pink Gaura Whirling Butterflies Flower Seeds + Gift100 Pink Gaura Whirling Butterflies Flower Seeds + Gift $1.50
Nice lambs ear plant! Ready to plant! Fuzzy beautiful and easyNice lambs ear plant! Ready to plant! Fuzzy beautiful and easy $7.99 Pink Hollyhock Seed - Alcea rosea Hollyhock Seeds ~ Hummingbirds & ButterfliesPink Hollyhock Seed - Alcea rosea Hollyhock Seeds ~ Hummingbirds & Butterflies $1.50
The Dirty Gardener Sunflower Seed Mix - 50 SeedsThe Dirty Gardener Sunflower Seed Mix - 50 Seeds $14.99 10 Indiana Bloodroot Plant Roots, Ready to plant!10 Indiana Bloodroot Plant Roots, Ready to plant! $10.99
Heather Blush Tall Bearded irisHeather Blush Tall Bearded iris $10.00 Sabal Palmetto Palm Tree Seeds Cabbage Palm 10 seed minimum fresh April 2016Sabal Palmetto Palm Tree Seeds Cabbage Palm 10 seed minimum fresh April 2016 $0.99 to $10.99
Cissampelos Pareira (organic) "Abuta" 40 seedsCissampelos Pareira (organic) "Abuta" 40 seeds $15.00 10+ Rare Huge Yellow Spaghetti Squash Winter Squash Seeds 3-8 Lbs & 9-12" Across10+ Rare Huge Yellow Spaghetti Squash Winter Squash Seeds 3-8 Lbs & 9-12" Across $2.95
'Mezzulah' Sunflower Seeds - Annual - 1 gram'Mezzulah' Sunflower Seeds - Annual - 1 gram $2.19 One-Pound Perennial 22-Variey Wild Flower Seeds Mixture plus Extra 1/8 Lb "Free"One-Pound Perennial 22-Variey Wild Flower Seeds Mixture plus Extra 1/8 Lb "Free" $75.00
Clarkia Godetia Dwarf Lilac Flower Seeds Clarkia amoena ~ Color: purpleClarkia Godetia Dwarf Lilac Flower Seeds Clarkia amoena ~ Color: purple $1.25 Clarkia Godetia - Azalea Double Mix - Flower Seeds - Clarkia amoena 12-24"Clarkia Godetia - Azalea Double Mix - Flower Seeds - Clarkia amoena 12-24" $1.25
1 Lb Bag Of Highland Bentgrass Seed For Home Lawns Golf Course Fairways & Roughs1 Lb Bag Of Highland Bentgrass Seed For Home Lawns Golf Course Fairways & Roughs $10.99 Dahlia Tuber "Karma Fushciana"Dahlia Tuber "Karma Fushciana" $5.00
Bottle Blue & Cream Gentian Seeds - Gentiana andrewsii - Gall Flower - PerennialBottle Blue & Cream Gentian Seeds - Gentiana andrewsii - Gall Flower - Perennial $1.00 Dill Herb * Bouquet Variety * 100 SeedsDill Herb * Bouquet Variety * 100 Seeds $1.19
20 iris rhizomes collection20 iris rhizomes collection $18.00 Clarkia Godetia Light Salmon Flower Seeds - bright colors - Clarkia amoenaClarkia Godetia Light Salmon Flower Seeds - bright colors - Clarkia amoena $1.25
1 "Celilo" Standard Dwarf Bearded Iris Rhizome1 "Celilo" Standard Dwarf Bearded Iris Rhizome $4.25 Lupine Russell Flower Seeds - BulkLupine Russell Flower Seeds - Bulk $6.99
Asclepias incarnata, Swamp Milkweed Seed BallsAsclepias incarnata, Swamp Milkweed Seed Balls $14.50 to $65.00 Heirloom French Charentais Melon Cantaloupe✽75 Seeds✽Sweet✽Flat Rate Combine S/HHeirloom French Charentais Melon Cantaloupe✽75 Seeds✽Sweet✽Flat Rate Combine S/H $2.00 Was: Previous Price $2.50
Carrot Solar Yellow Vegetable Seeds (Daucus carota) 50+SeedsCarrot Solar Yellow Vegetable Seeds (Daucus carota) 50+Seeds $2.69 Thriller Tall Bearded irisThriller Tall Bearded iris $10.00
Starring Role Bearded irisStarring Role Bearded iris $10.00 Summer Carnival Mix Seed - Hollyhock Flower Seeds ~ Fast GrowingSummer Carnival Mix Seed - Hollyhock Flower Seeds ~ Fast Growing $1.00
Aubrieta Rock Cress Pale Blue Aubrieta Hybrida Graeca - 500 Bulk SeedsAubrieta Rock Cress Pale Blue Aubrieta Hybrida Graeca - 500 Bulk Seeds $11.04 Was: Previous Price $12.99 cosmos, Sensation Cosmos, 50 seeds! GroCocosmos, Sensation Cosmos, 50 seeds! GroCo $1.00
Romaine Lettuce Freckles Vegetable Seeds (Lactuca sativa) 50+SeedsRomaine Lettuce Freckles Vegetable Seeds (Lactuca sativa) 50+Seeds $2.69 Penncross Creeping Bent Grass, 5 PoundsPenncross Creeping Bent Grass, 5 Pounds $54.10
Poppy ~Danish Flag~ "Papaver Somniflorum" ~Red & White~Annual SeedsPoppy ~Danish Flag~ "Papaver Somniflorum" ~Red & White~Annual Seeds $3.45 to $8.55 Zebrina Hollyhock Seed - Stunning French Hollyhock ~ Contrasting Violet StripesZebrina Hollyhock Seed - Stunning French Hollyhock ~ Contrasting Violet Stripes $1.50
Japanese Walnut, Delicious . 2 full pound of Heart nuts.Japanese Walnut, Delicious . 2 full pound of Heart nuts. $7.99 Chinese Ornamental Pepper - Great for pots, nice for drying! Very Hot! Free ShipChinese Ornamental Pepper - Great for pots, nice for drying! Very Hot! Free Ship $2.49 to $8.99
10 wild geranium roots, Ready To Plant!10 wild geranium roots, Ready To Plant! $8.99 Sweet Pepper Chocolate Beauty Vegetable Seeds (Capsicum annuum) 30+SeedsSweet Pepper Chocolate Beauty Vegetable Seeds (Capsicum annuum) 30+Seeds $2.69
Natural Blond - Tall Bearded Iris - Ghio 2002 - Creamy PeachNatural Blond - Tall Bearded Iris - Ghio 2002 - Creamy Peach $6.00 The Dirty Gardener Texas/Oklahoma Wildflower Seed Mix - 1 PoundThe Dirty Gardener Texas/Oklahoma Wildflower Seed Mix - 1 Pound $34.99
Aardvark Lark - Tall Bearded Iris - Black 2002 - SpectacularAardvark Lark - Tall Bearded Iris - Black 2002 - Spectacular $8.00 Like Wow Tall Bearded irisLike Wow Tall Bearded iris $16.99
Backdraft - 2010 Tall Bearded Iris by Stout - Award WinnerBackdraft - 2010 Tall Bearded Iris by Stout - Award Winner $8.00 5 Super nice Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) Plant Now Bulbs Rootstock!5 Super nice Bloodroot (Sanguinaria canadensis) Plant Now Bulbs Rootstock! $4.99
25 Blue Colored Gladiolus Perennial Bulbs Plus Free Shipping!25 Blue Colored Gladiolus Perennial Bulbs Plus Free Shipping! $15.99 celosia, Crested Mix, cockscomb, Colorful flower, 385 seeds! GroCo*celosia, Crested Mix, cockscomb, Colorful flower, 385 seeds! GroCo* $1.50
The Dirty Gardener Annual/Perennial Wildflower Seed Mix 1, 1 OunceThe Dirty Gardener Annual/Perennial Wildflower Seed Mix 1, 1 Ounce $1.99 Colorful Calla Lily Seeds Rare Colors Mixed 5 Plant seedsColorful Calla Lily Seeds Rare Colors Mixed 5 Plant seeds $5.99
Dark Eyes Calla Lily 3 Bulbs - Pretty Rose/Pink BloomsDark Eyes Calla Lily 3 Bulbs - Pretty Rose/Pink Blooms $13.86 Was: Previous Price $14.59 Asparagus Foxtail Fern Asparagus Densiflorus Meyeri - 50 Bulk SeedsAsparagus Foxtail Fern Asparagus Densiflorus Meyeri - 50 Bulk Seeds $25.49 Was: Previous Price $29.99
Wildflower Premium Mix Seeds - 3 gramsWildflower Premium Mix Seeds - 3 grams $1.29 Spartan Tall Bearded irisSpartan Tall Bearded iris $10.00
Tomato Golden Jubilee Vegetable Seeds (Lycopersicon lycopersicum) 50+SeedsTomato Golden Jubilee Vegetable Seeds (Lycopersicon lycopersicum) 50+Seeds $2.69 Wedding Seed Balls (100)Wedding Seed Balls (100) $50.00
The Dirty Gardener Contractors Grass Seed Mix - 25 PoundsThe Dirty Gardener Contractors Grass Seed Mix - 25 Pounds $35.99 50+ Sedum Summer Glory Flower Seeds / Cherry Red / Drought Tolerant Perennial50+ Sedum Summer Glory Flower Seeds / Cherry Red / Drought Tolerant Perennial $4.89
Clarkia Godetia Dark Salmon Pink Flower Seeds Clarkia amoena ~Color: Dark SalmonClarkia Godetia Dark Salmon Pink Flower Seeds Clarkia amoena ~Color: Dark Salmon $1.25 dill, Bouquet Dill, organic herb, 360 Seeds! GroCodill, Bouquet Dill, organic herb, 360 Seeds! GroCo $1.50
Oregano Herb Seeds - Greek - BulkOregano Herb Seeds - Greek - Bulk $7.99 Lot Catnip 1000 seeds & Packet dried herbs Organic Nepeta cataria Cats love it!Lot Catnip 1000 seeds & Packet dried herbs Organic Nepeta cataria Cats love it! $3.99
Loop The Loop Tall Bearded irisLoop The Loop Tall Bearded iris $10.00 Louisiana Green Velvet Okra Seeds - Great for Frying and Gumbo!Mmmmm.Good!Louisiana Green Velvet Okra Seeds - Great for Frying and Gumbo!Mmmmm.Good! $2.99 to $15.99
Dahlia Tuber "Glen Place"Dahlia Tuber "Glen Place" $5.00 Phacelia tanacetifolia or Lacy Phacelia 20 seedsPhacelia tanacetifolia or Lacy Phacelia 20 seeds $4.24 Was: Previous Price $4.99
Trifolium Mix, Mixed Clover Seed Balls for Bees & ButterfliesTrifolium Mix, Mixed Clover Seed Balls for Bees & Butterflies $14.50 to $65.00 The Dirty Gardener Roquette Arugula Herb - 0.25 PoundThe Dirty Gardener Roquette Arugula Herb - 0.25 Pound $5.99
'Solar Power' Sunflower Seeds - Annual - 1 gram'Solar Power' Sunflower Seeds - Annual - 1 gram $1.99 Licorice Stick Tall Bearded irisLicorice Stick Tall Bearded iris $10.00
50 Pansy Seeds Joker Poker Face Pansy Seeds50 Pansy Seeds Joker Poker Face Pansy Seeds $3.75 25+ Organic Sugar Daddy Snap Peas ~ Super Sweet Garden Legume ~ Salad Vegetable25+ Organic Sugar Daddy Snap Peas ~ Super Sweet Garden Legume ~ Salad Vegetable $2.99
Busy Being Blue - Tall Bearded Iris - Denney by McWhirter 1989 - Sky BlueBusy Being Blue - Tall Bearded Iris - Denney by McWhirter 1989 - Sky Blue $6.00 Gardenia jasminoides Cape Jasmine❋100 Seeds❋Very Fragrant White FlowersGardenia jasminoides Cape Jasmine❋100 Seeds❋Very Fragrant White Flowers $3.16 Was: Previous Price $3.95
Acer Pseudoplatanus Eskimo Sunset, Variegated maple 2 year oldAcer Pseudoplatanus Eskimo Sunset, Variegated maple 2 year old $37.00 10 Lbs Spring Summer Deer Food Plot Mix Millet Corn Cowpeas Sunflowers Haybeans10 Lbs Spring Summer Deer Food Plot Mix Millet Corn Cowpeas Sunflowers Haybeans $29.85
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25 Seeds, Flower Seeds, Plants, Seeds & Bulbs, Gardening & Plants
Annuals, Flower Seeds, Plants, Seeds & Bulbs, Gardening & Plants
Biennials, Flower Seeds, Plants, Seeds & Bulbs, Gardening & Plants
Bulk Seeds, Flower Seeds, Plants, Seeds & Bulbs, Gardening & Plants
Flower Seeds Gift, Flower Seeds, Plants, Seeds & Bulbs, Gardening & Plants
Perennials, Flower Seeds, Plants, Seeds & Bulbs, Gardening & Plants

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