A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seedsThe parts of an avocado seed (a dicot), showing the seed coat, endosperm, and embryo.Immature Elm seeds.Diagram of the internal structure of a dicot seed and embryo. (a) seed coat, (b) endosperm, (c) cotyledon, (d) hypocotyl.
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A seed (in some plants, referred to as a kernel) is a small embryonic plant enclosed in a covering called the seed coat, usually with some stored food. It is the product of the ripened ovule of gymnosperm and angiosperm plants which occurs after fertilization and some growth within the mother plant. The formation of the seed completes the process of reproduction in seed plants (started with the development of flowers and pollination), with the embryo developed from the zygote and the seed coat from the integuments of the ovule.

Seeds have been an important development in the reproduction and spread of flowering plants, relative to more primitive plants like mosses, ferns and liverworts, which do not have seeds and use other means to propagate themselves. This can be seen by the success of seed plants (both gymnosperms and angiosperms) in dominating biological niches on land, from forests to grasslands both in hot and cold climates.

The term seed also has a general meaning that predates the above — anything that can be sown i.e. "seed" potatoes, "seeds" of corn or sunflower "seeds". In the case of sunflower and corn "seeds", what is sown is the seed enclosed in a shell or hull, and the potato is a tuber.

Seed structure

A typical seed includes three basic parts: (1) an embryo, (2) a supply of nutrients for the embryo, and (3) a seed coat.

The embryo is an immature plant from which a new plant will grow under proper conditions. The embryo has one cotyledon or seed leaf in monocotyledons, two cotyledons in almost all dicotyledons and two or more in gymnosperms. The radicle is the embryonic root. The plumule is the embryonic shoot. The embryonic stem above the point of attachment of the cotyledon(s) is the epicotyl. The embryonic stem below the point of attachment is the hypocotyl.

Within the seed, there usually is a store of nutrients for the seedling that will grow from the embryo. The form of the stored nutrition varies depending on the kind of plant. In angiosperms, the stored food begins as a tissue called the endosperm, which is derived from the parent plant via double fertilization. The usually triploid endosperm is rich in oil or starch and protein. In gymnosperms, such as conifers, the food storage tissue is part of the female gametophyte, a haploid tissue. In some species, the embryo is embedded in the endosperm or female gametophyte, which the seedling will use upon germination. In others, the endosperm is absorbed by the embryo as the latter grows within the developing seed, and the cotyledons of the embryo become filled with this stored food. At maturity, seeds of these species have no endosperm and are termed exalbuminous seeds. Some exalbuminous seeds are bean, pea, oak, walnut, squash, sunflower, and radish. Seeds with an endosperm at maturity are termed albuminous seeds. Most monocots (e.g. grasses and palms) and many dicots (e.g. brazil nut and castor bean) have albuminous seeds. All gymnosperm seeds are albuminous.

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Outsidepride Cardinal Climber - 500 SeedsOutsidepride Cardinal Climber - 500 Seeds $7.42 Non-Gmo, Thunder Acres Premium Wheat Seed, Cat Grass Seed, Wheatgrass, Hard NewNon-Gmo, Thunder Acres Premium Wheat Seed, Cat Grass Seed, Wheatgrass, Hard New $27.32
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12 small elephant ear baby bulbs ready for planting in ground, ponds or planters12 small elephant ear baby bulbs ready for planting in ground, ponds or planters $19.99 One-sided Wintergreen . 200 SeedsOne-sided Wintergreen . 200 Seeds $3.95
50+Foxglove (Digitalis)Spotted Silver Fox Flower Seeds/ Perennial50+Foxglove (Digitalis)Spotted Silver Fox Flower Seeds/ Perennial $4.89 Mara Des Bois French Everbearing Strawberry 10 Plants - Best Flavor! - Bare RootMara Des Bois French Everbearing Strawberry 10 Plants - Best Flavor! - Bare Root $9.99
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80+ Seeds Red Mammoth
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 Mangel Organically Grown Non-Gmo Ships Free80+ Seeds Red Mammoth 00004000 Mangel Organically Grown Non-Gmo Ships Free $3.04 Flame Vine 20 seeds Eccremocarpus scaber Flame Buy 2 orders get 1 order freeFlame Vine 20 seeds Eccremocarpus scaber Flame Buy 2 orders get 1 order free $2.35
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Scarce Rare Blue Phantom Petunia Flower Seeds 200 PcsScarce Rare Blue Phantom Petunia Flower Seeds 200 Pcs $2.41 Catalpa, Catalpa speciosa, (Northern Source), Tree Seeds (Fast, Showy)Catalpa, Catalpa speciosa, (Northern Source), Tree Seeds (Fast, Showy) $2.00 to $9.00
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200+Copenhagen Market Cabbage Seeds Heirloom Organic Non-Gmo Fall Planting200+Copenhagen Market Cabbage Seeds Heirloom Organic Non-Gmo Fall Planting $2.25 20 Clara Barton Eastern Redbud Seeds - Cercis canadensis20 Clara Barton Eastern Redbud Seeds - Cercis canadensis $4.00
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100+ - 5 lb Non-Gmo Oregon Sugar Pod Ii Pea Seed - Free Shipping100+ - 5 lb Non-Gmo Oregon Sugar Pod Ii Pea Seed - Free Shipping $3.95 to $59.95 Large 24" Tall White Crinum Lily PlantLarge 24" Tall White Crinum Lily Plant $11.95
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20 Paperbark Maple Seeds - Acer griseum20 Paperbark Maple Seeds - Acer griseum $5.00 300+Vates Collard Greens Organic NonGmo Heirloom Us Grown Seed Fall Planting300+Vates Collard Greens Organic NonGmo Heirloom Us Grown Seed Fall Planting $2.25
Ohio Treasure Everbearing Black Raspberry - 4" Pot - Extremely Hardy/ProlificOhio Treasure Everbearing Black Raspberry - 4" Pot - Extremely Hardy/Prolific $7.99 Seascape Everbearing Strawberry 50 Bare Root PlantsSeascape Everbearing Strawberry 50 Bare Root Plants $24.99
Brugmansia Mona Lisa Angel Trumpet 6 seedsBrugmansia Mona Lisa Angel Trumpet 6 seeds $6.15 20 Shigiatsu Sawa Japanese Maple Seeds - Acer palmatum20 Shigiatsu Sawa Japanese Maple Seeds - Acer palmatum $5.00
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Zamia floridana Coontie 30 seedsZamia floridana Coontie 30 seeds $5.99 40+ White Hyssopus Officinalis Flower Seeds / Perennial40+ White Hyssopus Officinalis Flower Seeds / Perennial $3.90
20 Pyramical English Holly seeds - Ilex aquifolium " Pyramidalis "20 Pyramical English Holly seeds - Ilex aquifolium " Pyramidalis " $5.00 Plum Berry - Beach Plum - Prunus maritima - 4" PotPlum Berry - Beach Plum - Prunus maritima - 4" Pot $9.99
100+ - 5 lb Non-Gmo Early Alaska Pea Seed - Free Shipping100+ - 5 lb Non-Gmo Early Alaska Pea Seed - Free Shipping $3.95 to $59.95 12 Eastern Black Oak Acorns - Quercus velutina12 Eastern Black Oak Acorns - Quercus velutina $6.00
100+ - 5 lb Non-Gmo Green Arrow Pea Seed - Free Shipping100+ - 5 lb Non-Gmo Green Arrow Pea Seed - Free Shipping $3.95 to $59.95 Philadelphus microphyllus Little leaf Mock Orange 10 seedsPhiladelphus microphyllus Little leaf Mock Orange 10 seeds $5.56
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Us South Jumbo Blackberry Seeds Black BerryUs South Jumbo Blackberry Seeds Black Berry $2.69 10 Japanese Larch Seeds - Larix kaempferi10 Japanese Larch Seeds - Larix kaempferi $6.00
50+ Veronica Creeping Blue Speedwell Flower Seeds / Perennial50+ Veronica Creeping Blue Speedwell Flower Seeds / Perennial $3.90 David's Garden Seeds Tomato Paste Amish D3817A (Red) 50 Organic Heirloom SeedsDavid's Garden Seeds Tomato Paste Amish D3817A (Red) 50 Organic Heirloom Seeds $8.99
10 Ballerina Magnolia Seeds - Magnolia × loebneri 'Ballerina'10 Ballerina Magnolia Seeds - Magnolia × loebneri 'Ballerina' $6.00 * Bonfire Begonia Red Flowering Hanging Basket 50+ Annual Seeds* Bonfire Begonia Red Flowering Hanging Basket 50+ Annual Seeds $2.99
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25 Seeds, Flower Seeds, Plants, Seeds & Bulbs, Gardening & Plants
Annuals, Flower Seeds, Plants, Seeds & Bulbs, Gardening & Plants
Biennials, Flower Seeds, Plants, Seeds & Bulbs, Gardening & Plants
Bulk Seeds, Flower Seeds, Plants, Seeds & Bulbs, Gardening & Plants
Flower Seeds Gift, Flower Seeds, Plants, Seeds & Bulbs, Gardening & Plants
Perennials, Flower Seeds, Plants, Seeds & Bulbs, Gardening & Plants

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